For immensely heavy aircraft to reliably achieve flight, they must be able to create a significant amount of lift. Lift is generally produced with the assistance of various flight surfaces, the most notable and important being the wing structures. Nevertheless, countless advancements have been made to improve the lift generating capabilities of wings, those of which have also improved the ability of a pilot to better control the vehicle during various flight phases. Leading edge slats and flaps are two common devices that may be found on aircraft of all types, and they benefit pilots in terms of lift and directional control. As having a general understanding of both of these devices is important for any current or prospective pilot, we will discuss their functionality and design in brief detail.


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Resistors are components that are very commonly found in many electrical circuits, and they act as an element that resists the flow of current with their resistance values and other specifications varying based on their design. PTC thermistors in particular are a form of positive temperature coefficient resistor, meaning that the rise of its resistance is directly tied to a rise in temperature. PTC thermistors may either come in the form of silistors or switching type PTC thermistors, each category differing in their material composition, structure, and manufacturing process. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of PTC thermistors, allowing you to have a basic grasp on their characteristics, modes of operation, applications, and more.


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For many aircraft, the landing gear system is one of the most important aspects of the entire vehicle. During a standard flight operation, aircraft landing gear will enable the plane to traverse ground surfaces, take off, and land with ease. Despite its grand importance, landing gear is only useful while on the ground, thus, it creates unnecessary drag when extended in the flow of air during flight. To avoid this loss in performance, many modern aircraft feature what is known as a retractable gear system, that of which is a landing gear assembly that can be drawn into the fuselage of the aircraft when not in use.


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Engine thrust reversal systems are initiated to decelerate aircraft speed during landing rolls and rejected takeoffs, and is especially necessary during emergencies and increased airport traffic. When reverse thrust is brought into action, engine airflow is redirected to help slow down the plane. As commercial engines are designed to generate forward thrust, thrust reversal is crucial for aircraft safety during events of emergency braking and landing procedures. To better understand how these components function, this blog will further dive into how thrust reversers function, alongside their various types that suit different aircraft requirements.


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When aircraft are on the ground and need to be moved backwards, it is important to employ the use of aircraft towbar rather than use the engine’s reverse thrust systems. While most aircraft have a wide or full range of motion, towbars prevent damage to both the equipment involved and the equipment nearby. Instead of moving the aircraft from within, the towbar pushes from the outside using a system of a towbar mechanism attached to a carriage, such as a tractor or a tug. A driver on the ground operates the carriage and pushes the craft externally in a “pushback” motion without needing to run the jet engines. It is important to stay up to date with maintenance concerning the many parts of the towbar. This blog will explore the various aspects of the towbar system and how to properly prevent operational problems.


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Aircraft are held together by a series of structural fasteners which join two or more pieces of metal together. In a Boeing 777, an impressive 1,000,000 fasteners are implemented to construct the 290,000lb aircraft. Of the various fastener types, the most common is the solid shank rivet, accounting for well over 50% of the total components on the plane. In this blog, we will discuss everything you need to know about the solid shank rivet, including its design and installation process.


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Fuel pressure gauges are an important instrument for any aircraft, serving to measure and report the amount of fuel that is present within a tank. Such instruments generally consist of two parts, those of which are the indication and detecting unit. The indication element is what is placed in the flight deck alongside other gauges for pilots to monitor, while the detecting or sensory unit is implemented within the fuel tank itself. As the instrument plays an indispensable role in maintaining safe flight operations, it is crucial that pilots have an ample understanding of their functionality, design, and types.


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While tuning the aircraft exhaust system has only become commonplace in the last 30 years, it has quickly made the top of the list for aircraft maintenance. To ensure the optimal functionality of your aircraft engine and to extend its longevity, tuning the exhaust system is of the utmost importance. With this in mind, this blog will provide a brief overview of the steps required to tune your aircraft exhaust system.


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For an aircraft to perform with an optimal fuel economy and efficient speeds, engineers have to amply balance strength-to-weight ratios of components to ensure that they are capable of withstanding stressors while minimizing the overall weight of the vehicle. As a result, metals like titanium and aluminum are regularly used for their high strength and low weight. Plastic is also a material that has sharply risen in popularity since the 1970s, due to its ability to match the strength of metal while being much lighter. In this blog, we will discuss the airplane parts that are most commonly produced with plastics, allowing you to better understand how engineers are increasing performance and mitigating fuel costs for modern aircraft.


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While the flight instruments used on different aircraft vary greatly, there is one device that every plane is equipped with—the altimeter. First implemented on aircraft in 1928, the altimeter ushered in a new era of aviation in which the pilot could gauge their altitude accurately and not purely based on visual information. The rest of the 20th century brought about huge advancements in avionics technology, including the precision of the altimeter. Today, several devices are used concurrently to accurately represent altitude in real-time.


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Deposits within the engine of an aircraft can occur as a result of many things, often being due to the concentration of fuel and standard operations. As deposits build up, they can cause a number of issues in a variety of systems and components. Because of this, it is important that one amply understands how deposits form, what the most affected areas are, and how to combat such issues for the health of the fuel system and engine alike.


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Powerplant cooling systems are necessary for preventing the overheating of general aviation aircraft engines. As air must evenly move across all cylinders to effectively keep an engine cool, modern reciprocating aircraft engines utilize pressure cooling systems to minimize  the accumulation of heat by forcing the downflow of cold air. Dividing an engine into two separate parts—a high pressure area above the engine and low pressure area below the engine—pressure cooling in piston powered aircraft involves the use of cowling secured with rigid and flexible baffles to facilitate and promote engine airflow.


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Hydraulic systems are common to aircraft, ensuring that landing gear, brakes, flaps, thrust reversers, flight controls, and other systems can be operated without full reliance on one’s own strength. Requiring only a small amount of fluid, more force than a pneumatic system may be achieved with ease for high reliability. To better understand how airplane hydraulics are used, we will discuss their design, implementation, and functionality.


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Additives are commonly added to many fuel types to mitigate harmful deposits that can settle within an engine. Often included to improve fuel and aircraft performance, there are a myriad of additives that can be added to jet fuel to benefit particular aircraft. With close to a dozen potential additives to choose from including corrosion inhibitors, static dissipators, anti-oxidants, fuel system icing inhibitors (FSII), biocide, and more, there are only two that primarily need to be considered for jet fuel. As jet engines require fuel capable of reaching certain performance requirements, additives must be applied during fueling to further prolong engine longevity and reduce engine deposits.


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The turboprop engine is a common type of turbine engine, utilizing the combustion of fuel-and-air-mixtures in order to drive aircraft propellers. Commonly found on a variety of aircraft models, the turboprop engine is known for its high efficiency at lower flight speeds, excelling over turbojet and turbofan engine types of the same size in regard to fuel burned per seat-mile, takeoff distance requirements, and landing distance requirements. As an engine that can highly benefit various commuter aircraft, it can be useful to familiarize oneself with the makeup of turboprop engines to best understand how they function.


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The aircraft gas turbine engine is a powerful apparatus, capable of harnessing the combustion of fuel and air mixtures for the means of generating the propulsive force and thrust needed for flight. While coming in various forms, a typical gas turbine engine will feature an air inlet, compressor, combustor or combustion chamber, turbine blade section, exhaust section, and various accessories or other aerospace components. Turbine engines will also share common assemblies for their cooling, fuel system operations, or pressurization, often implementing oil cooler parts, lubrication system equipment, and other various components. Nevertheless, various turbine engine types have come about over the years with slightly different designs, those of which are the turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft.


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Aircraft flight instruments are one of the most important tools for pilots, allowing them to monitor various flight conditions that are needed for safe and efficient operations. While instruments are advanced and useful devices for flight, they are nothing without a trained pilot to digest their data for the means of flight management. In this blog, we will discuss the various instrument installations and markings that are common to aircraft, allowing you to have a better idea of how readings may be conducted.


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The gas turbine engine is a widely used engine type for aircraft, utilizing the combustion of fuel and air mixtures to produce the propulsive force needed for achieving flight. As the ignition of fuel and air mixtures results in a stream of hot, expanding exhaust gases, there needs to be a system in place to rid the engine of this byproduct after it is used to drive assemblies. With the exhaust section of the gas turbine engine, spent gases are expelled rearward at a high velocity to achieve more thrust as well as to mitigate turbulence.


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The flight control systems of most aircraft comprise a series of rods and bellcranks that connect the flight control surfaces, such as the aileron, rudder, or elevator, to a series of cables that run through the wings and fuselage to the yoke or stick. When motion is applied by the pilot to the stick or yoke, these cables transmit the motion to the control surface. Similar to the way an automobile needs regular alignments and adjustments to help it steer properly and track straight, the aircraft control system must also be regularly adjusted to ensure the aircraft flies straight and level.


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A bearing is any surface that supports or is supported by another surface. A quality bearing is made of material strong enough to withstand the pressure it is exposed to while permitting the other surface to move with minimal friction and wear. The bearing must be held tightly in position with close tolerance to provide efficient and quiet operation, yet still be allowed to move freely. To do this while reducing friction and power loss, aircraft engines employ many different types of bearings.


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