Keysight Electronic Calibration (ECal) Modules are state-of-the art, solid-state devices with programmable and highly repeatable impedance states that are traceable through the National Metrology Institute (NMI). ECal modules are controlled by the Keysight network analyzers, meaning no external PC is required. Electronic calibration replaces the need for traditional mechanical standard calibration, and provides reliable calibration that eliminates outside factors like operator error, all while making the calibration process more simple and convenient.


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A signal generator is any type of device that can create an electronic signal in the form of a wavelength. Oftentimes, they’re used for development and test systems within other equipment designed for assessments. There are various types that you can find in the current market, but each serve the primary purpose of producing an electrical signal. Some very common generators include vector signal generators. signal generators, and arbitrary function generators.


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Circuit breakers are automatically operated electrical switches designed to protect against damage caused by electrical overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected. There are three types of circuit breakers: standard, ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI), and arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCI). Each type handles different amp capacities and operates in different locations depending on the necessity of defense.


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While many people believe that the electrical components of an aircraft or automobile are controlled by the housed battery, this is actually not the case. The electrical system of a vehicle is controlled by the alternator which is one of the main components of the vehicle charging system. An alternator is a type of generator that creates electric power through the conversion of mechanical energy into electric energy. In this blog, we will discuss how an alternator works, as well as their benefit to vehicles that utilize electrical equipment.


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In industries as complex as aerospace and defense, there are countless parts and pieces of machinery in circulation. Manufacturers, buyers, sellers, and so on need to be familiar with each of them to do business. So how do entities in this industry navigate all these parts? One such way is through the NSN code system. An NSN, or National Stock Number, is a unique number given to a part that is commonly used throughout the federal supply system.


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Although aircraft functions differ greatly based on their design, their basic structures are all roughly the same. While there are many subcomponents, there are really only five major aircraft components: the fuselage, wings, empennage, powerplant, and landing gear.


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National Stock Numbers or NSNs, are 13-digit serial numbers assigned to all standardized items within the federal supply chain. All components that are used by the U.S Department of Defense are required to have an NSN, the purpose of which is to provide a standardized naming of components. The NSN system can be dated back to WWII when the military would use a specific component that had several different names depending on who supplied or manufactured the component. This made it difficult for the military to locate suppliers, or share items between the different organizational branches. An item could be in short supply in one location, but in surplus in another. To solve this sourcing issue, the Department of Defense created the NSN system.


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Pressure gauges are devices that monitor performance parameters in terms of internal pressure. In a water system or tank, for instance, the water and air that runs through them is pressurized, and a pressure gauge measures the force of the pressure in the water or air to ensure that it is working within the proper parameters. Pressure that is too high or too low can indicate a serious mechanical issue in the device or system, and if left unchecked can cause serious damage.


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Relays are electronic control devices that pair a control system (or input loop) with a controlled system (or output loop). They are typically used in automatic control circuits, with a smaller current to control a larger “automatic switch” of current. Relays are used in the role of automatic adjustment, safety protection, and conversion circuits.


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The term “thermistor” is a combination of the words thermal and resistor. Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistors are components within an electric circuit that lose resistance as they come in contact with increasing temperatures. They are widely used as temperature sensors in applications varying from microwaves to computers to the seat heater in your car. Not only do they measure temperature, thermistors also measure liquid levels, making their use in mechanical systems invaluable. What's more, NTC thermistors can operate between -55 to 200 degrees Celsius making them suitable for a variety of environments on an aircraft.


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The modernization of aircraft has seen a correlated increase in the amount of AC power systems providing the vessel its electrical capabilities. Many of these electrical systems operate solely on AC. On the other hand, lighter aircraft tend to function better when using DC systems. The model AC electrical system would be composed of an AC alternator, a system that regulates the aforementioned alternator, as well as fuses and wiring.


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An automatic identification system (AIS) receives information broadcast by other vessels and base stations that are equipped with an AIS transponder and transmits static and dynamic information from its own vessel. The system uses two data-specific channels in VHF to receive and transmit the information. There are various types of data that an AIS is capable of transmitting, these include: MMSI coding, GPS antenna positioning, speed over ground (SOG), course over ground (COG), and more. These transponders are responsible for allowing vessels to see and be seen by other marine vehicles equipped with AIS— they act as a preventative locating tool.


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The first U.S. patent for the o-ring was filed in 1937 by Niels Christensen. During WW2, the US government deemed it as a critical war-related item and therefore transferred the rights to manufacture it to many other organizations. Christensen received a payment because of this, but 20 years after his death, his heirs received another large payment due to litigation. With how important and commonly used o-rings are today, maybe the payments would be even bigger.


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An alternator is an electrical generator that converts energy into electricity in the form of an alternating current (AC).  An automatic drive controls the alternators rational speed allowing for the alternator to maintain a constant output. All AC alternators are required to rotate at a specific speed to keep the frequency of the AC voltage within proper limits. If a frequency strays more than 10 percent from the required value, the electrical system will not work properly. To ensure an alternator always stays within values, a unit called a constant-speed drive is used. This unit always rotates at the correct speed and can be mounted independently or within the alternator housing. This unit is comparable to an automatic transmission found in an automobile; the engine can change but the speed remains constant.  In an aircraft, the hydraulic transmission is mounted between the AC alternator and the engine. Hydraulic oil is used to operate the transmission allowing for a constant output speed and engine rpm drives the hydraulic pump, turning the alternator.


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When you need to lift heavy objects like the engine of a Boeing 747, you’re not doing it with a team of guys, yelling at them to “put their back into it”. You’re doing it with a crane and sling. Choosing the right kind of sling requires understanding of the application. Depending on the details, you’ll have to choose between wire rope, chain, and synthetic slings.


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Air compressors are the most common machine in a number of industries, from aerospace and aviation to construction and manufacturing. And because they’re used to power a lot of different machines like paint guns, pressure washers, and sandblasters, it’s important to know the differences between air compressors and know what kind you need for your project.


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Superchargers are engine-driven air pumps that give the engine additional pressure to the induction air, which results in additional power. Superchargers have the capability to boost manifold pressure above 30 “Hg.


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Engines can be regarded as the most striking and impressive part of an aircraft. The biggest aircraft engine in KLM’s fleet is the General Electric GE90-115B. The engine measures at 3.43 meters in diameters. The engine is the power house for the airlines Boeing 777-300ERs, which is also KLM’s biggest twin-enringed aircraft. The engines can create 115,000 pounds of thrust which according to the Guinness Book of World Records, is the world’s “most powerful commercial jet engine.”


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When learning how to care for your hydraulic accumulator one should always know as much about their product as possible. While accumulators are all about storing and distributing energy that also have functions that can help with shock absorption and many other key features. Your unit should be serviced and tested often to ensure it is running smoothly and effectively.


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The tail rotor on a helicopter is located, as its name states, on the tail of the helicopter. Its’ purpose is to prevent the helicopter from spinning the opposite way of the main rotor blades. Imagine having to ride in a helicopter that is continuously spinning in circles, it would not be an as efficient form of transportation. Passengers would be sick or dizzy, and parts of the aircraft could possibly fall off with only one place to go, the ground. This would result in civilian injuries/deaths, along with a lot of property damage. The tail rotor blades counteract the main rotor blades allowing the helicopter to fly straight and be easily controlled by the pilot, especially during maneuvers. It spins horizontally to compensate for the torque created from the main rotor. The placement of the tail rotor placed away from the center of gravity, on the tail, allows for the most effective results.


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